PHYSIOLOGY OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN PLANTS

PHYSIOLOGY OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT IN PLANTS

Like every living thing, plants are born, grow, evolve and eventually die. The increase in volume caused by the addition of new substances to the plant or plant organs is called growth. As the volume increases with new substances gained as a result of growth, differentiation also occurs. The Growth event consists of two successive phases. These: * Growth * Development and differentiation These two events occur in all tissues and organs, from the smallest unit of plants to the most differentiated organs.

Germination

After the seed leaves the host plant, it passes a resting phase for a certain period, either free or within the fruit. At this time, the seed is resistant to external effects such as cold and hot and other mechanical impacts. The amount of water in the cytoplasm of the cells that make the seed has been reduced to a minimum and their vital functions have been indistinguishable. While the seed is in this state it is ready to travel far or near with special and varied means. When the seed finds suitable environment to germinate, the signs of life begin to accelerate immediately. This is called germination. It is possible to collect the environment needed for germination in two parts, internal and external conditions. The internal condition is the ability to develop in terms of the formation and structure of the seed. The external conditions are oxygen, especially water, heat, and air. Light is also needed in advanced circuits. Germination begins when the seed first swells by taking water from the environment. This is followed by physiological events such as dissolving the substances in the fattening tissues of the seeds through special enzymes, sending them to the necessary places and using them. In the third stage, the intake of nutrients and the growth and development events provided by them. In the process of these events, the young, divisible cells of the embryo divide rapidly on one side, increasing the number of cells in the embryo. On the other hand, some cells elongate, expand, and eventually the various organs of the embryo grow into a distinct state. The first organ that emerges from the seed in germination is the stem of the embryo. In this process, the hard shell of the seed is cracked as a result of swelling and the embryo parts are provided to extend outwards. The rootlet extends into the soil and develops rapidly. The organ that will get the nutrients needed for the growth of the young plant from the soil is the root. After the development of the STEM and leaflets are seen to rise above the soil. Seedlings are the young plant consisting of STEM and leaves formed from the seed embryo.

Growth Of Plants

Each cell of various organs in seedling developed by seed germination first by volume expands develops, differentiates and continuously divides, increasing the number of cells. Thus the embryo growth is achieved. With the repetition and continuous occurrence of all these events, the seed is becoming more and more it goes into an advanced state. The various organs that make seedlings and the cells that make them are the same higher development by continuing the stages of growth and development without stopping, and it forms the host plant that will reach stages of differentiation. Organs such as roots stem and leaves with full formation and differentiation, the structural growth and development period of the plant ends.

Factors Affecting Growth

Growth and development events of plants, various factors of Environment and each plant depends on its unique internal characteristics.

External Factors

Various external factors have different effects on growth and development. Especially light, the effects of temperature, water, and gravity are the most important external factors.

Light

Green plants, growth, and development of certain light. But some primitive plants don’t want light. Excessive and severe light, often a stalling effect on growth it is engaged. This is why plants are stunted in more sunny environments. In contrast lack of light accelerates growth. It causes the plant to develop abnormally. In the dark environment, a plant that is forced to live grows too tall, its color is yellow and its leaves are small. The light required for each plant’s structural growth is variable and the intensity of light is an important factor in growth. The desire for light intensity varies according to plant species. In this regard, plants are distinguished as shade-loving and sun-loving plants.

Temperature

For each plant to grow and develop a certain temperature in its environment must. In general, between 0 and 40 0C plants can show development and growth. Each development and vitality ends below and above the appropriate temperature degrees, which vary according to the plant. Each plant is different in that it can withstand cold and heat.

Water and humidity

Water is one of the essential substances for plants to live. Plants grow a certain amount of water is needed. Water excess generally accelerates growth. To this, on the other hand, plants growing in arid environments are regressed in growth. Hence stunting are noticeable. Water scarcity also negatively affects differentiation.

Gravity

Gravity accelerates hormone secretion in plants. Effect of this event on growth and development price. So the effect of gravity happens indirectly.

Internal Factors

The genetic characteristics of each plant are effective in growth and development. External environment for this regardless, a plant is eligible for its species as a result of its hereditary ability to it creates the individual. One of the factors affecting growth and development in plants is hormones. Hormones, which can be carried elsewhere from where they are produced, although very few effects it’s organic matter that’s a lot. We can examine herbal hormones in three different groups. Growth hormones: Oxins, gibberellins, cytokinins * Organ Builders: these hormones affect the formation of flowers, roots, stems, leaves price. * Wound hormones: secreted when the plant is injured. Wound it’ll make him better. One of the factors affecting the growth and development of plants is vitamins. Even very small amounts, such as vitamins and hormones, affect the growth and development of organic compounds.

Some Problems with Growth

Polarity In Plants

One of the major problems in plants is the three-dimensional form of growth and it is the formation of differentiation. Development from embryonic stages during the development of all single or multicellular organisms in advanced stages of various forms is the winner. During the time of acquisition of these forms, various regions that are asymmetrical also emerge interest.
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Correlation Between Plant Bodies

The characteristics of the plant and the various organs of the plant consist of a total of. Each of the different organs of a plant has its unique characteristics and demonstrates this behavior. All of these behaviors constitute the specific behavior of the plant. On the other hand, various organs with these different characteristics work in harmony in the plant. However, the removal of any of the different organs that make up the plant, especially or accidentally it is also known that there is a certain change in the plant as a result. As an example, if a leaf is cut off, the growth of the petiole is significant decreases. On the other hand, the fall of the leaf stem from the stem (defoliation) quickly becomes. Although the lack of the leaf foot has a decreasing effect on the elongation of the petiole, the stem it has accelerated the development of fungal tissue that causes shedding. The palm of us has this the effect of accelerating the elongation of the stem when it is present, whereas the effect of spilling the stem he explains that it also has a stopping effect on fungal tissue development.

Dormancy

Plant bodies rest during some periods of the year in terms of growth and development it enters its phase. This is called sleepiness or dormancy. Various environmental factors and various chemical substances by processing sleep state breakable. The awakening of development and growth in that organ and the shortening of the state of sleep subject.

Abscissa In Plants

One of the most obvious signs of plant growth and development, it leaves in spring and leaves in autumn. Specific exterior and interior of plants the event that results in them losing their leaves under the influence of conditions (defoliation) it’s called an abscess. Foliage especially in Woody double-jawed plants it’s a characteristic feature. In many cases can also be seen in herbaceous leaves sometimes it happens very suddenly and sometimes slowly and gradually.

Development Periodicity In Plants

Differences in the vital activities of trees in winter and spring, in our daily lives, has been observed to be. Such periodic development depends entirely on external factors we can’t imagine that. Certainly, the role of external environmental conditions in such a transformation is great. But views that only take into account external circumstances have always made this transformation in development can’t explain. Because in a plant that we carry to a warm climate, even though it is not winter, leaves with the breakdown, there is a decrease in development and abnormalities again. Hence only external factors not, internal factors also mean attending the event. Plants, both due to this periodic development and permanent divisible meristematic since they have tissues, they have unlimited growth relative to animals and humans, and their lives are much longer. Those that last, a week of life between plants are annual and very annual plants are easily distinguished. But many trees have a very long life too known.

Restitution In Plants

In plants, the division of undivided tissue cells in an injured area gaining the ability, he is seen to split rapidly and repair the wound. Your cells begin to divide. Closure of the wound is defined as regeneration. Sometimes it’s because of this ability that you’re missing. an organ may even consist of an entire plant from a piece of tissue. With the help of regeneration, the formation of organs or organs is called restitution. Practical consequences of these events in agriculture it revealed the technique of making the vaccine, which has found wide application.

APPLICATION ACTIVITY

Internal and external factors in plants by providing the necessary environment, tools, and materials. Examine growth and development events according to their effects.

Process – Steps – Recommendations

* Examine the rate of dry matter in the plant. * Organic compounds within the plant investigate. * Inorganic compounds in the plant investigate. * Examine germination. * Prepare the seed October places. * Do not sow seeds deep. * Pay attention to irrigation. * Factors affecting growth refer to. * Investigate the influence of external factors. * Investigate the impact of internal factors. * Investigate the effect of light. * Investigate the effect of temperature. * Investigate the effect of water. * Investigate the effect of gravity. * Problems with growth refer to. * Research polarity in plants. * Correlation between plant bodies investigate. * Research dormancy in plants. * Research abscissa in plants. * Growth periodicity of plants investigate. * Research restitution in plants.

CHECKLIST

For the skills, you gain from the behaviors listed below in this activity. Yes, by placing (X) in the no box for skills you have not earned assets. Assessment Criteria Yes No 1. Have you researched organic compounds within the plant? 2. Have you prepared the October seedings? 3. Have you studied the effect of water on growth? 4. Have you investigated the correlation between plant bodies? 5. Have you investigated abscissa in plants? 6. Did you pay attention to watering in germination? 7. Have you studied the effect of temperature on growth? 8. have you investigated the impact of external factors affecting the growth? 9. Have you studied dormancy in plants? 10. Have you studied restitution in 10 plants?

EVALUATION

Review your answers as “no” at the end of the evaluation. If you do not think yourself sufficient, repeat the learning activity. All of your answers are “yes”, switch to “Measurement and Evaluation”.

MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION

In the following sentences, type the correct words in the empty places. 1. The development of the embryo made of fissile, embryonic cells within the seed that will provide biological events . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 2. The seed embryo consists of the STEM, STEM and leaves of the young plant . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 3. Too much light often harms the plant . . . . . . . . . . it’ll make him stay. 4. The best growth in plants is between . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . . . temperatures.
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5. Gravity . . . . . . . . . . causes the secretion. 6. Growth and development of plants affecting hormones . . . . . . . . . . it’s called hormones. 7. Plants lose their leaves under the influence of certain external and internal conditions . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 8. Plants like other living things . . . . . . . . . . and he dies. 9. Healing of injured areas in plants by cell division . . . . . . . . . . is called. 10. The seeds in germination . . . . . . . . . . and water need has.

EVALUATION

Compare your answers with the answer key. Wrong answer or answer return to the activity and repeat the questions you hesitate to give. If all your answers are correct, proceed to the next learning activity. LEARNING ACTIVITY-2 The effects of internal and external factors on plants when the necessary environment, tools, and materials are provided you will be able to comprehend the motion events according to. * Research the structure and functions of plant organs. * Investigate how the displacement in plants is. * Research how to change the situation in plants. * Share your information with your friends.

PHYSIOLOGY OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS

Displacement Movements

High-built plants can not be replaced because they are connected to the soil by their roots. However, primitive plants and single cells can be displaced, albeit slowly, by cytoplasmic movements. This phenomenon seen in primitive plants is of three kinds.

Amoboic Movement

This movement is seen in runny fungi. On the cytoplasm in runny fungi, there is no protective case. These creatures with false feet removed from the cytoplasm it creates extensions. These extensions can be displaced in line.

Protoplasm Movement

In-plant cells, the protoplasm is in constant motion under normal conditions. For example, Elodea, an aquatic plant, is examined under a microscope after being kept in the sun for some time the movement of the protoplasm can be observed in this plant which receives water into it. Protoplasm movements two variety: * Rotation: following the cell wall of the protoplasm always in the same direction it’s the way he moves. * Circulation: movement in various directions of protoplasm in multi-scrofulous cells it is. It displaces in organelles during protoplasm movements.

Migration Movements

One-cell and some multicellular living things change their place under the influence of various substances make the move. This is called taxis. Light is the factor that allows living things to make this movement. chemical. Phototaxis of a creature moving under the influence of light, chemotaxis is the movement of chemicals under the influence of chemotaxis. Let’s examine phototaxis with a simple experiment. From a puddle around you let’s get a glass of water and cover it with a black sheath. Let’s put a hole in the glass. Several let’s keep the day waiting like this. When we pull the Black Cup over the Cup there is a hole the part consists of a greenish look. The algae in the water move to this part seen.

State Change Movement

Plants cannot be displaced like animals because they are connected to the soil by their roots. But state change movements to take more advantage of the environment they are in makes.

Tropisms

State change movements related to the direction of arrival of the problem in the direction of warning, or in the direction of warning it could be in the opposite direction. These movements are called tropisms. Tropism, in short, the stimulus they are state-changing movements that depend on direction. Growth hormone oxytocin irregular it is caused by irregular growth due to its distribution. Tropisms according to the type of stimulus it is called. * Phototropism: the auxin hormone released from the stem end of the plant by the light there’s more on the side where it’s not. Therefore auxin on the side where the light comes directly from the hormone is low, it accumulates a lot on the side where the light doesn’t come. As a result, solar growth is rapid in regions that do not see, growth is slow on the side that sees the sun. This in the event, allows the plant to turn towards the sun. The flowers on the edge of the glass that’s why it turns its leaves towards the glass. Light an organ of the plant positive phototropism if it turns towards its source, negative if it moves away from the light it is called phototropism. * Geotropism: the motion of changing state due to gravity. Plant positive geotropism is seen at the root, while negative geotropism is seen at the stem. Positive tropism at the root allows the plant to bind to the soil. * Hydrotropism; water orientation movement. Plants at the creek’s edge an example is the orientation of the roots to the water. * Traumatropism: the orientation of plants to injury stimulus it’s movement. If there is an injury to the root of the plant, the wound hormone in that area secreted. As a result, the root is oriented towards the opposite direction of the wound. * Chemotropism: beneficial organic and inorganic in the soil of plant roots it grows towards substances. In the meantime, it gets away from harmful substances. Plant chemotropism to move closer or farther away from chemicals it is called. * Haptotropism: the response of the plant to the stimulation of touch. It is often seen in hugging bodies. Haptotropism, where the plant touches it, continues to grow by hugging with effect.

Irganim (nasties)

It is movement in plants that do not depend on the direction of the stimulus. Whichever side the Warner comes from the reaction of the plant is the same. Nasti movements sudden in turgor pressure it happens with changes. Varieties of Nasti include: * Photonasti: the movements caused by light in plants. Light in some plants causes flowers to close, open in darkness or shade. Turgor the movements of the stomata which are switched on and off with the changes in the light or dark of the day relates to having. An example of this event is the evening pleasure plant. Evening flowers in the Sefasi plant, no matter where the light comes from, close in much light, in Little Light it opens. * Sismonasti: tremors caused by movements in plants. Exemplary closing of leaves by a concussion in mimosa plant, many plants when you touch it, the seeds throw away when the misty grass is shaking it can be given to close its leaves and droop downwards.
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* Termonasti: occurs with the effect of temperature. For example, the yet unopened Tulip flowers are brought to a warmer environment 10-15 oC compared to the environment in a few minutes, the flower opens fully. * Tigmonasti: occurs with the stimulus of touch. Example of a fly trap plant attributable. If an insect is placed on the leaf of the flytrap, the effect of touching leaves close.

Periodic Movements

Some movements seen in many plants differ between night and day. So many plants are seen at night, hanging down the Leaf, closing the flowers, flower during the day the movements of opening and erecting the leaves continue rhythmically. These movements are called periodic movements. This event can be likened to sleep at night in humans. Periodic we can give examples of movements seen in küstümüm grass, Acacia, and bean plants. In the bean plant, the leaves SAG downward at night, while in the daytime they upward indicate orientation. Periodic movements occur as a result of changes in turgor pressure. So in many places, these movements are also called sleep movements.

Movement In Inanimate Tissues Of Plants

In addition to the movements seen in the living tissues of plants, some of the movements of the inanimate tissue are seen. The movements seen in inanimate tissues are the result of asymmetric swelling. The rotational motion of the fruit bone seen in the Dönbaba plant, the opening and opening of old conifers closing movements are examples of movement in inanimate tissues. This movement in lifeless tissues is related to the moisture and drought of the air. Plant because there is not the same degree of swelling all over it, it occurs in the form of curling and twisting.

APPLICATION ACTIVITY

Internal and external factors in plants by providing the necessary environment, tools, and materials examine movement events according to their effects. Process-Steps-Recommendations * Examine the movement of displacement. * Investigate amöboic movement. * Investigate the movement of protoplasm. * Research migration movements. * Movements on the plant observe. * State change movements refer to. * Investigate tropisms. * Search my family (nasties). * Movements on the plant observe. * Examine periodic movements. * Examine the plants at night. * Examine plants during the day. * Movements of plants day and night your comparison. * Inanimate tissues of plants examine the movements. * Measure the humidity of the air. * Measure soil moisture. * In proportion to soil and air humidity examine plant movement.

CHECKLIST

For the skills, you gain from the behaviors listed below in this activity, Yes, by placing (X) in the no box for skills you have not earned assets. Assessment Criteria Yes No 1. Have you investigated 1 Amoboic movement? 2. Did you investigate the movement of protoplasm? 3. Did you investigate the migration movements? 4. Have you studied tropisms? 5. Have you investigated my tribe? 6. Did you compare the movements of plants day and night? 7. Have you measured the humidity of the air and the soil? 8. Plant movement in proportion to soil and air moisture have you examined it?

EVALUATION

Review your answers as “no” at the end of the evaluation. If you do not think yourself sufficient, repeat the learning activity. All of your answers are “yes”, switch to “Measurement and Evaluation”.

MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION

In the following sentences, type the correct words in the empty places. 1st. The action made by removing cytoplasmic extensions in one-cell plants . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 2. Allocations . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . . . this is due to the effect of the ingredients. 3. The root of the plant . . . . . . . . . . geotropism in the body . . . . . . . . . . geotropism is seen. . 4. Movements based on the direction of the stimulus . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 5. Phototropism . . . . . . . . . . it’s your hormone. 6. Hydrotropism . . . . . . . . . . is the orientation. 7. The plants showed day and night to different movements . . . . . . . . . . movements it is called. 8. Movements that do not depend on the direction of the stimulus . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 9. The cause of the movement seen in inanimate tissues is asymmetric . . . . . . . . . . . 10. Insectivorous plants such as flycatchers . . . . . . . . . . seen. Compare your answers with the answer key. Wrong answer or answer return to the activity and repeat the questions you hesitate to give. All of your answers go to the correct “module evaluation”.

MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION

In the following sentences, type the correct words in the empty places. 1. To increase their volume by adding new substances to plant organs . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 2. Seed from the environment for germination to begin . . . . . . . . . . you need to take it. 3. Organ-making hormones flower, . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . and . . . . . . . . . . formation provides. 4. Plants have a resting phase at certain times of the year. It . . . . . . . . . . it is called. 5. Ameuboic movements . . . . . . . . . . it occurs in fungi. 6. The first organ from seed . . . . . . . . . . type. 7. The displacement movement of a cell . . . . . . . . . . it is called. Read the following questions carefully and select the correct option. 8. What is the action of sunlight stimulus in plants? A. ) Phototropism B. ) Geotropism C. ) Hydrotropism D. ) Traumatropism 9. The movement was seen in plants in the form of approaching or moving away from the chemical substance. Which of the following? A. ) Phototropism B. ) Chemotropism C. ) Geotropism D. ) Haptotropism 10. What kind of nasty do you see in custom weed? A. ) Fotonasti B. ) Termonasti C. ) Sismonasti D. ) Tigmonasti 11. I. Fotonasti II. Phototropism III. Jeotropizma Which or which of the plant movements given above depends on the direction of the stimulus. What are the actions? A. Alone I B. ) Solo II C. ) II and III D. ) Solo III 12. Which of the following is not required for germination? A. ) This B. ) Temperature C. ) Oxygen D. ) Dioxide 13. What is different motion in plants day and night? A. ) Periodic movement B. ) Tropism C. ) Vernilization D. ) Nutation 14. For the tropism movement; I. Cytoplasm movement. II. It occurs in plants. III. The direction of the thigh affects movement. IV. The situation is a change move. Which or which of his statements are true? A. ) I and II B. ) III and IV C. ) Solo II D. ) II, III and IV 15. One reason plants remain stunted is that there is little water. What other reason could there be? A. ) Light B. ) Temperature C. ) Gravity D. ) Any

EVALUATION

Compare your answers with the answer key. Wrong answer or answer return to the activity and repeat the questions you hesitate to give. If all your answers are correct, contact your teacher to proceed to the next module.

ANSWER KEYS

ANSWER KEY TO LEARNING ACTIVITY 1 1. germination 2. seedlings 3. squat 4. 25-35 5. hormones 6. growth 7. abscesses 8. is born, grows 9. regeneration 10. oxygen, temperature C THE ANSWER KEY TO LEARNING ACTIVITY 2 1. Ameuboic movements 2. Light, chemical 3. positive, negative 4. tropism 5. Auxins 6. to the water 7. periodic movement 8. Nasti 9. inflatable 10. Tigmonasti ANSWER KEY OF MODULE EVALUATION 1. growth 2. Water 3. roots, stems, leaves 4. dormancy 5. Civic 6. taxis 7. Root 8. A 9. B 10. C 11. C 12. A 13. A 14. D 15. A

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