Organic gardening means not using synthetic products, including pesticides and fertilizers. Thus, we can both consume the plants, vegetables and fruits we grow without harming our health, and also protect the environment as our garden has become a small part of the natural system.
Today, many people who enjoy working with their gardens prefer to grow delicious and harmless crops without using harmful chemicals and fertilizers by preparing an environment where they can do organic cultivation in their gardens. In addition, since it does not harm beneficial bacteria and living things in the soil, it can grow in harmony with nature.
Changing your gardening style and having a garden in collaboration with nature requires some effort at first, but the benefits are well worth the effort. Moreover, it is possible to start organic gardening in a small garden with just one or two plants.
The First Step Is To Prepare The Soil
The first condition of organic gardening is to prepare the soil. Plants take water, air and nutrients from the soil. For this reason, the existing soil must be transformed into qualities that will nourish the planted plants without chemicals. The better the soil is prepared, the better the results. Healthy soil helps grow more productive plants.
Tip: Soil analysis is an important factor in soil improvement.
Learning the quality of the soil before you start makes it easy to improve the soil. The best method for this is to have the soil analyzed. For testing, soil analysis kits can be purchased, or you can apply to the Provincial Directorate of Agriculture of the region.
Tip: In order for the soil to be ready for organic production, it is necessary to dig and aerate the soil.
In order for the soil to be ready for organic production, it is necessary to dig and aerate the soil and add organic materials such as leaf mold and compost to the soil. This not only improves the texture of the soil, but also allows moisture and nutrients to hold in the soil.
The Most Natural Fertilizer: Compost
Compost is a natural fertilizer obtained by digesting all kinds of organic waste together. It feeds the plants by providing the soil with better airing, better water retention and enrichment. It also keeps food and garden waste away from garbage dumps by turning garbage into “black gold”.
It is possible to prepare compost at home or it can be purchased. A pot can be used to prepare it at home or a prepared pit in the garden can be used. All organic kitchen waste such as tea bags, egg shells, fruit and vegetable waste, all garden waste such as bark, branch, grass, dried flower and paper waste can be used for compost.
Tip: Compost, the most natural fertilizer, should be used in organic gardening.
The best compost consists of the right ratio of nitrogen and carbon-rich organic waste mixed with soil, water and air. A thin layer of soil should be placed between the layers and water should be added to keep it moist. It will be appropriate to make the mixture in a perforated container so that it can breathe. The most important point to be careful about is not to use enough green waste to cause an odorous mud. Leaves, straw or sawdust can be added to prevent odor. Compost should never smell.
The Right Plant Provides Plenty of Yield
Plants suitable for the conditions of the garden and the soil should be selected. Plants that are compatible with the environment in which they are planted become stronger against diseases or pests. For example, moisture-loving plants should not be chosen in a shady and forested garden that requires plenty of sun or gets plenty of sun. In the use of seedlings, plants grown without chemical fertilizers and pesticides will be the best choice.
Tip: Plants suitable for garden conditions and soil should be selected.
Creating variety in the garden naturally controls diseases. The plant variety attracts more beneficial insects and prevents possible plant diseases from spreading throughout the garden. Also, changing the position of crops every year is an effective method to prevent the spread of diseases in the soil.
Tip: Weeds must be weeded before planting.
Before planting the selected plants, weeds must be brought to the surface and extracted from the soil. Applying mulch to the soil also reduces the number of weeds.
Nature Controls Insects
It would be best to control insects naturally. Chemical drugs should never be used when plants are attacked. Natural sprays such as garden oils, insecticidal soaps, garlic or hot pepper can be used.
Tip: Useful animals like ladybugs are important guardians of gardens.
Since an organic garden is intertwined with nature, pests will also live in its soil. Animals, birds and insects are the most important protectors that cleanse gardens from these pests. For example, hedgehogs and toads clean up slugs and snails in the garden. Lizards, birds, ladybirds and even bats are natural predators for pests in the gardens.
Tip: Suitable living spaces should be created for useful animals to survive in the garden.
For this reason, it will be very useful to create suitable habitats for useful animals to live in gardens and to make small water resources to attract friendly hunters. It’s also a good idea to grow small flowering plants like dill that attract beneficial insects.
Take Care Of Your Garden
It is necessary to prevent problems before they grow by visiting the garden regularly and examining the plants. Make sure the plants get enough light, nutrients and moisture.
Tip: Plants should be watered in the morning and from their roots.
The best time to water the plants is usually in the morning. In the morning there is less wind and the weather is colder. Therefore, the amount of water lost by evaporation is reduced. Watering in the evening causes the plants to stay moist overnight and suffer from fungal and bacterial diseases.